Earlier this month, we presented the Wadala Experiment Case Study at the World Social Marketing Conference in Dublin, Ireland. The 2nd World conference brought together an audience of 600 behavioural change experts from 40 different countries.
The Wadala Experiment was the only case study presented at WSMConference that drew on learnings from Cognitive Neuroscience and Behavioural Economics to tackle social problems (trespassing in Mumbai). Behaviour change in larger societal problems, including healthcare, savings, and road safety can benefit greatly if we change our thinking and approach these issues in a more fundamental manner.
With the success of the Wadala Experiment Case Study, we have demonstrated how Behaviour Architecture™ can be used effectively to bridge the gap between AWARENESS and ACTION, a point which most social marketers, and even consumer marketers, are grappling with today.
If you have a parole hearing, when should you schedule your slot so that you get a favourable decision? The graph below might shed some light on that question.
In this graph, Shai Denziger captures the results of 1112 parole hearings in Israeli prisons over a ten-month period.
The vertical axis is the proportion of cases where the judges granted parole. The horizontal axis shows the order in which the cases were heard during the day. And the dotted lines, they represent the points where the judges went away for a morning snack and their lunch break.
What the graph shows is extremely noteworthy. At the start of the day, the odds that a prisoner will be successfully paroled is 65%, before nosediving to 0% within a matter of few hours. The judges take their first break (as shown by the dotted lines), and the successful odds climb up to 65%, before plummeting again. Ditto for the proportion of successful paroles after lunch.
Danziger found that the three prisoners seen at the start of each “session” were more likely to be paroled than the three who are seen at the end. That’s true regardless of the length of their sentence, or whether they had been incarcerated before.
Whether prisoners are let off or not could merely be a function of when their cases were heard.
An easy explanation to this could be the aspect of “choice overload”. In repetitive decision-making tasks, once we’ve drained our mental resources, we suffer from choice overload and start opting for the default choice.
For the judges, the more decisions they’ve made, the more depleted they are, and hence they end up making the default choice – in this case, deny parole.
But if we look at things more fundamentally, a clearer picture emerges. Glucose helps you make better decisions.
Glucose is the only fuel used by the brain cells for mental activity. Since the neurons don’t store glucose, they depend on the bloodstream to supply a constant amount of this fuel.
As the judges make more decisions, their brains are getting drained, thereby creating a propensity to look at more immediate decisions (getting back concentration and focus on the current task) rather than understanding the prisoner’s situation and taking appropriate decisions.
The implications of glucose on decision making and its effect as seen in judges’ decision making are huge.
The brain is an energy optimizing machine. Making decisions takes a lot of effort, and too many of them make us feel tired.
In organizations that demand lot of mental task from their employees, productivity can be increased by creating an environment that leads to making fewer decisions. Google is a frontrunner in recognizing this aspect and creates an environment that reduces distractions (thereby keeping glucose levels higher), because of which it’s employees go on to create things that Google is so well known for.
As erstwhile CEO Eric Schmidt put it…
“Let’s face it: programmers want to program, they don’t want to do their laundry. So we make it easy for them to do both.”
This is a fundamental way of looking at how organizational productivity can be increased. If more companies start thinking in this manner, it can only open up doors for a new era in innovation, creating a happier bunch of employees who can then do whatever they do in the best
We wrote an article in the Hindu Business Line about how the Indian Entrepreneur uses intuitive intelligence and ignores conventional wisdom that large multinational marketers use to market their products. Biju unravels the science behind those intuitive decisions. For those who would like to save a click, the article is reproduced here ....................... Getting inside the Indian entrepreneur's brain The Hindu Business Line; Oct 28, 2010 Biju Dominic The Indian entrepreneur brings a large dose of intuitive wisdom to his business decisions. His decisions look very different from those discussed in business schools, but deliver tremendous results in the market place. Business school educated professionals rarely grasp the greatness of those decisions at the outset. Nor are they able to unravel the science behind those intuitive decisions. So they are incapable of effectively countering those decisions. When Karsanbhai Patel launched Nirma washing powder in the Seventies, the launch television commercial was seen as bizarre. Even today, an unwritten norm of the advertising industry is that the brand name should appear just once, that too during the last few frames of the TVC. In the Nirma launch commercial pack shots, brand usage shots and brand benefit shots and the brand name “Nirma” were repeated many times. The whiz kids of the advertising industry thought the commercial would be the first fall of a small-time Indian entrepreneur who was just learning the tricks of the trade. When M. P. Ramachandran of Jyothy Laboratories launched Ujala liquid whitener to take on a large established MNC brand, he did not splurge on glitzy television commercials. The launch ad of Ujala in local magazines asked people to send in a short poem using the words ‘Ujala', ‘clothes' and ‘whiteness'. Instead of using the best copywriters from the best advertising agencies to write eulogies about the brand, ideally in English, here was an Indian entrepreneur who was asking the consumers to write something about the brand and its benefits, that too in their mother tongue. While the innovative business ideas of Nirma and Ujala have been replicated, the communication ideas during the launch of these two brands have never been fully understood. With the emergence of Cognitive Neurology as a fundamental science to explain all aspects of human behaviour, we are in a better position to decipher the science behind even the most intuitive decisions of the Indian entrepreneur. A memory is formed in our brain thanks to connections between millions of neurons and the electrochemical stimuli that pass between them. Any memory in turn is connected to several other associated memories. The strength of a memory depends on the strength of its neural connections. All marketing activities aim to strengthen the neural connections between a particular brand and the benefit it caters to. How do we strengthen the brain's neural connections? If electrochemical stimuli pass between a set of neural connections repeatedly, the neural connections become stronger and stronger. So the repetition of stimuli is key to strengthening any memory. This has been understood very well by organised religion and political parties, the real masters of mass persuasion. Repetition of prayers, chants and slogans are an integral part of their daily rituals. So when Karsanbhai Patel repeated the brand name and brand images multiple times in Nirma's launch commercial, he was intuitively following a memory strengthening exercise that has been happening in the churches, temples and the streets of this country for centuries. After the Korean War, many of the American soldiers who were captured as prisoners of war came back from Chinese prisons as strong believers in communist philosophy. American psychologists who wanted to find out how this brainwashing happened were surprised to find that no violent methods were inflicted on these prisoners to alter their belief systems. Chinese authorities just got these American prisoners to write down what they wanted them to believe in. Yes, getting your consumers to write down their liking for your brand dramatically increases their loyalty towards your brand. Jyothy Laboratories received thousands of poems written by the consumers. There would have been ten thousand others who wrote a few lines on a sheet of paper or at least thought of a few lines of a poem in their brains. In the brains of all these amateur poets, millions of neurons related to ‘clothes' and ‘whiteness' would have formed a very strong connection with brand Ujala. There are many great marketing ideas that are lying unused because no one has discovered their true worth. To know their true worth we need to polish them using the science of cognitive neurology. So the next time you need to insert the line ‘I love XYZ brand because …' at the end of the brand contest form, would you consider it a legal requirement or as one of the most powerful ways to build strong loyalty for your brand? .......................
Source: LiveStrong by d.p.t. on flickr A recent article in ICNR raises fundamental questions on whether Chemotherapy has been oversold. Research done by 3 oncologists in Australia and the US published in the Australian Journal Clinical Oncology titled "The Contribution of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy to 5-year Survival in Adult Malignancies" found that chemotherapy contributes just over 2 percent to improved survival in cancer patients. Why then are well meaning doctors making the mistake of prescribing their patients with wrong treatment regimen? Brain's ability to understand and process complex information is quite poor and how the situation is framed would lead to decisions that are not entirely rational. In this case, the results of oncology treatments were framed as relative risk and not as absolute risk as pointed out by the authors.
For example, oncologists frequently express the benefits of chemotherapy in terms of what is called "relative risk" rather than giving a straight assessment of the likely impact on overall survival. Relative risk is a statistical means of expressing the benefit of receiving a medical intervention in a way that, while technically accurate, has the effect of making the intervention look considerably more beneficial than it truly is.
If receiving a treatment causes a patient's risk to drop from 4 percent to 2 percent, this can be expressed as a decrease in relative risk of 50 percent. On face value that sounds good. But another, equally valid way of expressing this is to say that it offers a 2 percent reduction in absolute risk, which is less likely to convince patients to take the treatment.Experiments done by Kahneman & Tversky establish how the brain processes losses and gains differently and thus leading to different decisions. The following experiment conducted amongst a large sample of physicians illustrates this behaviour.
The U.S. is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease, which is expected to kill 600 people. Two alternative programs to combat the disease have been proposed. Assume that the exact scientific estimates of the consequences of the programs are as follows: – If program A is adopted, 200 people will be saved. – If program B is adopted, there is a one-third probability that 600 people will be saved and a two-thirds probability that no people will be saved. Which of the two programs would you favor?72 percent of those physicians who took part in the experiment chose option A, which was seen as a safe option. But look at what happens when the same probability is framed differently.
The U.S. is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease, which is expected to kill 600 people. Two alternative programs to combat the disease have been proposed. Assume that the exact scientific estimates of the consequences of the programs are as follows: – If program C is adopted, 400 people will die – If program D is adopted, there is a one-third probability that nobody will die and a two-thirds probability that 600 people will die. Which of the two programs would you favor?Only 22 percent in this case chose option C and the remaining 78 percent chose option D. When the problem is framed in terms of losses rather than gains, the decision changed, though the probability of survival is just the same. While this is completely irrational behaviour, it is systematic and hence predictable and repeatable because of the way our brain is wired. This understanding opens up interesting possibilities in influencing social behaviour in ways that are favourable to society and thus more effective application of government spending.
Implementation has been a major problem in India, particularly in public policies and programs. Planning Commission jointly with India@75 foundation has launched a unique initiative- India Backbone Implementation Network (IBIN) to remove bottlenecks for improving implementation of policies. Pronounced as ‘Ib’+ ‘In’, IbIn combines ‘Ib’ meaning now in a Hindi dialect and ‘In’ for India. It echoes the founding ethos of IbIn: India Now. Final Mile is proud to be a partner in this ambitious initiative. At the core of the implementation problem is behaviour of individuals, agencies and groups and the lack of coordination between them. An accurate interpretation of the problem will help us design interventions to influence the behaviour of stakeholders involved in policy implementation. Final Mile hopes to bring in its expertise in Behavioural Sciences and Design to drive collaboration and improve coordination among the agencies involved in policy implementation. We understand that its a long journey, but one that we must start now. MORE ABOUT IBIN "Citizens in India are fed up with foundation stones strewn across the country by political leaders yearning for the limelight. They want more ‘finishing stones’. Projects are stuck in tardy processes of approval and snarled in inter- departmental wrangles. In India, a highly diverse as well as democratic country, consensus is required for all stakeholders to move together, forward and faster. This consensus cannot be commanded. We need another mechanism specifically designed to bring people with different perspectives together: to listen to each other, to distill the essence of their shared aspiration for the country, and define the critical principles they will adhere to in their work as partners in progress. In other words, a backbone capability within the system, that supports collaborative approaches to solving complex/multi-layered issues, is required. The India Backbone Implementation Network (IbIn) will play this role. The concept of the IbIn has been developed through extensive discussions to determine the root causes for coordination and implementation failures within the country and explore methods of coordination and effective implementation adopted by other countries. The concept of an IbIn has also been incorporated into the 12th Plan. The architecture of IbIn has been designed along similar principles as the TQM movement of Japan. TQM was a movement of adoption of new techniques by several organizations to improve performance in multiple places in Japan. The objective of IbIn is to promote widespread capabilities in the country to systematically convert confusion to coordination, contention to collaboration, and intentions to implementation. " (Excerpts from www.ibinmovement.in)